Syed Mohammad Abdullah Shah Madni Jillani was born on 29th Ramadan 1186 H (24 Dec, 1772 A.D) in Madina. His faternal genealogy reaches Prophet Mohammad Sall'Allahu Alayhi Wa'alihi Wasallam through Syed Abdul Qadir Jillani Razi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu and his maternal genealogy reaches Hazrat Ali Karum Allah Wajhul Kareem through Imam Syed Mohammad Taqi Razi Allah Anhu. Syed Abdul Rehman Jillani Dehlwi Rehmat-ul-Allah Alayh (the murshid of Hazrat Sakhi Sultan Bahoo Rehmat-ul-Allah Alayh) was his great grandfather. Syed Mohammad Abdullah Shah's grandfather Syed Abdul Aziz migrated from Dehli to Baghdad in 1696 and then to Madina in 1698.
Syed Mohammad Abdullah Shah was devoted towards prayers and had strong spiritual relationship with Allah since his early childhood. He learned the Holy Quran by heart at the age of 12 years. He was least interested in the worldly businesses. His maternal grandfather Syed Mohammad Zaqi-ud-Din often took him to the sacred shrine of Hazrat Mohammad Sall'Allahu Alayhi Wa'alihi Wasallam. Only there he could find peace of heart. After the death of his parents Syed Mohammad Abdullah Shah completely shunned the worldly life and started living at Masjid-e-Nabwi, where he silently served and prayed for six years. One night Holy Prophet Sall'Allahu Alayhi Wa'alihi Wasallam came in his dream and asked that what did he want as a reward for all his services. Syed Abdullah Shah replied that he wanted the treasure of Faqr. The Holy Prophet Sall'Allahu Alayhi Wa'alihi Wasallam replied that for the treasure of Faqr he had to go to Hazrat Sakhi Sultan Bahoo. When Syed Abdullah Shah woke up, he was surprised at this dream. Thinking it weird to go to someone else while the true holder of treasure of Faqr is the Holy Prophet Sall'Allahu Alayhi Wa'alihi Wasallam himself, he started serving at Masjid-e-Nabwi again. After another six years the Holy Prophet Sall'Allahu Alayhi Wa'alihi Wasallam again came in his dream and asked the same question, the answer was again the same. The Holy Prophet Sall'Allahu Alayhi Wa'alihi Wasallam guided Syed Abdullah Shah that for the treasure of Faqr you must have to go to Sultan Bahoo. He added that first you should go to Baghdad at the shrine of Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jillani and then under his spiritual guidance you can reach Sakhi Sultan Bahoo's shrine in Jhung (In India then). On awakening Syed Abdullah Shah obeyed the order and prepared himself to go to Baghdad, from where under the spiritual guidance of Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jillani Razi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu, he reached at the shrine of Hazrat Sakhi Sultan Bahoo in 1825. Hazrat Sakhi Sultan Bahoo Rehmat-ul-Allah Alayh entrusted him the treasure of Faqr spiritually and ordered him to settle in Ahmad Pur Sharqia of Bahawalpur state and start guiding the seekers of Allah almighty.
Nawab of state of Bahawalpur Nawab Bahawal Khan III was a great devotee of Syed Abdullah Shah Madni Jillani Rehmat-ul-Allah Alayh. In Ahmad Pur Sharqia thousands of devotees acquired the blessings of Faqr from Syed Abdullah Shah Rehmat-ul-Allah Alayh, but he found the true and strongly capable devotee in the purest soul of Pir Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Shah Rehmat-ul-Allah Alayh. So before his death he entrusted the treasure of Faqr to Pir Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Shah Rehmat-ul-Allah Alayh for future guidance of seekers of Allah.
Syed Abdullah Shah Madni Jillani Rehmat-ul-Allah Alayh died on 29th of Ramadan in 1276 H (20 April, 1860 A.D). His shrine is in Ahmad Pur Sharqiah Bahawalpur (Pakistan). His urs is held on the second Sunday of Shawal. His title is Sultan-ul-Tarekeen.